Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective means available for managing infectious diseases. However, vaccines that are available for prevention or control of diseases with the greatest impact are often not designed with the developing country context in mind. These vaccines often confer short-lived immunity resulting in multiple re-vaccinations, display poor efficacy or safety profiles and have limited capacity to protect against multiple serotypes. The National Biopharma Mission supports the development of vaccine candidates at various stages including proof-of-concept, optimization, toxicity studies and clinical trials.